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Table 1 Measurement of active shoulder function according to Mallet.

From: An MRI study on the relations between muscle atrophy, shoulder function and glenohumeral deformity in shoulders of children with obstetric brachial plexus injury

Functional parameter Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5
Abduction None <30° 30°–90° >90° Normal
External rotation None <0° 0°–20° >20° Normal
Hand to neck None Not possible Difficult Easy Normal
Hand to back None Not possible S1 Th12 Normal
Hand to mouth None Marked trumpet sign* Partial trumpet sign* <40° abduction Normal
  1. Normal function in every dimension is five points, absent function 1 point [10].
  2. *Trumpet sign is abduction of the shoulder with simultaneous flexion of the elbow.